Christians and the Environment – A Study Guide


Author: Alan Marshall – December 1998

 (with revisions to October 2005)



1.      A Creation Mandate


  • God saw that everything he made was “good” (Gen. 1:20-25, also 1:9,12,18). God saw that it was “very good” (Gen. 1:31).
  • God blessed man, and all living creatures, using the same words “be fruitful and increase in number” (Gen 1:28, 22).
  • Man was set apart from other creatures. He was made in God’s image (Gen 1:27), and given authority over, and responsibility for, creation (Gen 1:26, 28).
  • Man was to work the Garden of Eden and care for it (Gen 2:15). He was to use but not abuse it. In today’s language his use was to be sustainable.
  • As a result of the fall, management of the environment became difficult (Gen 3:17-19), yet man still had authority over creation, and responsibility for it, because he were still bore the image of God (Gen 9:6, 1 Cor 11:7). This creation mandate still applies today.


2.      The Covenant of the Rainbow


  • In the judgement of the flood, God was careful to instruct Noah to preserve seven pairs of the clean animals, which were later to be bred for food. Yet he was careful to preserve one pair of every species, regardless of its utility to man (Gen 6:19-21). In today’s language, biodiversity is “good”.
  • God is making a new start. His will is that mankind and all living creatures “be fruitful and increase in number” (see above).
  • This is why he makes a covenant, not just with Noah and his family, but with “all life on the earth” (Gen 9:8-17). God promises never again to flood the earth, never again to destroy the habitat of all living creatures. If this is so, our destruction of the environment today works directly against the intent of this covenant! The rainbow reminds us that God has lain down the weapons of his destruction. It should remind us that we need to do the same.


3.      The Covenant with Israel


  • The land of Israel is given to Abraham and his offspring to inherit forever (Gen 13:14-15). The land was periodically given a chance to recover (Lev 25:3-4). Put these two scriptures together, and it is clear land use in Israel was to be sustainable.
  • The land is God’s, so we can’t just do what we please with it (Lev 25:23-24).

4.      The Redemption of Creation


  • Turn to the New Testament and God still cares about his creatures (Mat 6:26-27). We therefore have a continuous witness about the importance of the environment from Adam to Noah to Moses to Jesus.
  • The Earth has a future, even after Jesus’ return. It will be renewed (Rom 8:19-22), and will be our eternal home (2 Pet 3:13).
  • Although the Earth will ultimately be renewed, the present destruction of the environment cannot be ignored. In fact, in Rev 8:7-11 it seems to be a means of judgement. (The imagery is symbolic, but are we seeing a fulfillment of this now as the Earth heats up (v.7), as the oceans become acidified (v.8-9),  and as our rivers become polluted and saline (v.10-11)?


5.      Our Response


  • We should care about the kind of world our children will inherit (Pro 13:22a, Ezr 9:12b).
  • We should acknowledge that the Bible makes plain our responsibility to care for the environment, a responsibility we have neglected. We should also acknowledge that God speaks to us, not just through his word, but also through his creation (Psa 19:1-4, Rom 1:20, Mat 6:28-29).
  • As individual believers, and as churches, we need to repent of our environmental carelessness, and of our sometimes willful ignorance. Although we may have to live with some of the consequences of our past environmental failings, if we humbly acknowledge these to God, the healing of the land will begin (2 Chr 7:14).
  • We should accept our duty of stewardship over the environment (Gen 1:26-28). As green groups have been telling us for decades, this involves acting locally and thinking globally.
  • Acting locally involves reasonable measures to minimize the harm we do to the environment personally.
  • Thinking globally means acknowledging the role of government in those areas that are properly its concern. We should “give to Caesar what is Caesar’s” (Mat 22:15-22), and cooperate with government in seeking the common good (Rom 13:1-7). These scriptures refer specifically to the right of governments to levy taxes, and their duty to preserve law and order. I would argue that protecting the environment is also very much the business of government, both at the national level and in appropriate international agreements. There is nothing we have more in common than the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the climate we and all God’s creatures live in. Because these things cross the boundaries between nations, our response must be local, national, and also global.
  • Christians who have the opportunity can serve God through involvement in the political process (Gen 41:41-57, Nem 1:11-2:2, Dan 5:29-6:3). We can make a difference!

  • Our legitimate concern for the environment should not distract us from out primary focus, which is the extension of the Kingdom of God (Mat 6:19-21). Nevertheless, care for the environment is part of responsible living through which we honour God and witness to the world (Mat 5:16).



The Earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it (Psa 24:1).


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